In terms of energy (both fossil-based and green), geopolitics, geoeconomics, trade, finance, health and digital security, and media and soft power, China’s influence in the region has been growing in the past two decades.
Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (The JCPOA) should be understood in the geopolitical context of Obama’s Pivot to Asia. Obama’s Pivot to Asia was meant to contain China and reduce the American involvement in the MENA region.
Iran’s economy has witnessed multi-tier and unstable exchange rate systems which echo different ideological priorities, necessities of profitability in semi-market conditions and rentseeking contributions.
A number of incidents which took place following Iran’s Islamic Revolution rapidly escalated the relations between Iran and the Western countries, particularly the US.