The regional equation, along with Iran’s and the PKK’s positioning in this equation, shapes the general characteristic of the Iran-PKK relationship.
First employed by Saudi Arabia against the Al-Sahwa Movement and later expanded for further use, the Madkhali Salafists have become a military organization, as seen in Yemen and Libya.
Notwithstanding their strong position against Iran, the US views Indian investment in Chabahar as a positive sign because it counters China.
Trilateral cooperation with Iran and India offers economic integration for Turkey and helps facilitate it to become one of the world’s top ten economies.
After the US withdrawal from JCPOA, and announcements about new sanctions, German-Iran trade volume declined drastically.
Growing Saudi-Israeli ties and as a result better ties between the Gulf States and Tel Aviv indicate that Iran’s security buffer might be compromised.
The regional order in the Middle East and South Asia is greatly changing. These changes seriously influence the interests of these three countries and their role-playing.